# End-pointed SSA of Williams %R [Loxx]

Aggiornato
End-pointed SSA of Williams %R is an indicator that runes Williams %R SSA calculation through a Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) algorithm to derive a smoother final output. The reduction in noise from the traditional Williams %R is significant.

What is Williams %R?
Williams %R , also known as the Williams Percent Range, is a type of momentum indicator that moves between 0 and -100 and measures overbought and oversold levels. The Williams %R may be used to find entry and exit points in the market. The indicator is very similar to the Stochastic oscillator and is used in the same way. It was developed by Larry Williams and it compares a stock’s closing price to the high-low range over a specific period, typically 14 days or periods.

What is Singular Spectrum Analysis ( SSA )?
Singular spectrum analysis ( SSA ) is a technique of time series analysis and forecasting. It combines elements of classical time series analysis, multivariate statistics, multivariate geometry, dynamical systems and signal processing. SSA aims at decomposing the original series into a sum of a small number of interpretable components such as a slowly varying trend, oscillatory components and a ‘structureless’ noise. It is based on the singular value decomposition ( SVD ) of a specific matrix constructed upon the time series. Neither a parametric model nor stationarity-type conditions have to be assumed for the time series. This makes SSA a model-free method and hence enables SSA to have a very wide range of applicability.

For our purposes here, we are only concerned with the "Caterpillar" SSA . This methodology was developed in the former Soviet Union independently (the ‘iron curtain effect’) of the mainstream SSA . The main difference between the main-stream SSA and the "Caterpillar" SSA is not in the algorithmic details but rather in the assumptions and in the emphasis in the study of SSA properties. To apply the mainstream SSA , one often needs to assume some kind of stationarity of the time series and think in terms of the "signal plus noise" model (where the noise is often assumed to be ‘red’). In the "Caterpillar" SSA , the main methodological stress is on separability (of one component of the series from another one) and neither the assumption of stationarity nor the model in the form "signal plus noise" are required.

"Caterpillar" SSA

The basic "Caterpillar" SSA algorithm for analyzing one-dimensional time series consists of:

Transformation of the one-dimensional time series to the trajectory matrix by means of a delay procedure (this gives the name to the whole technique);
Singular Value Decomposition of the trajectory matrix;
Reconstruction of the original time series based on a number of selected eigenvectors.

This decomposition initializes forecasting procedures for both the original time series and its components. The method can be naturally extended to multidimensional time series and to image processing.

The method is a powerful and useful tool of time series analysis in meteorology, hydrology, geophysics, climatology and, according to our experience, in economics, biology, physics, medicine and other sciences; that is, where short and long, one-dimensional and multidimensional, stationary and non-stationary, almost deterministic and noisy time series are to be analyzed.

Included:
• Bar coloring
[*Signals
[*Loxx's Expanded Source Types

Related Williams %R Indicators

Williams %R on Chart w/ Dynamic Zones

Williams %R w/ Bollinger Bands

Intermediate Williams %R w/ Discontinued Signal Lines

Related SSA Indicators
End-pointed SSA of FDASMA

End-pointed SSA of Normalized Price Oscillator
Note di rilascio:
Removed unused code.